riverrun - the course which a river shapes and follows through the landscape + The Letter: Reverend (letter start) + "How pleasant it would be to walk out alone, first along by the river and then through the park." (The Dead) + - 'rn' or 'ren' (name).

'Church of the Immaculate Conception' also known as Adam and Eve's is a Roman Catholic church run by the Franciscans and it is located on Merchants Quay, Dublin. A chapel on the site was destroyed in 1619 and later rebuilt. The Franciscans secretly said Mass in the Adam and Eve Tavern, where the popular name of the present church comes from. In 1759 a newer church was built, which was later replaced by the current church + "Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. Julia, though she was quite grey, was still the leading soprano in Adam and Eve's, and Kate, being too feeble to go about much, gave music lessons to beginners on the old square piano in the back room." (The Dead) → Miss Kate and Miss Julia are based on Joyce's own aunts: The Misses Flynn who, as their great-nephew put it, 'trilled and warbled in a Dublin church up to the age of seventy'. This was the ancient Franciscan church on the south quays popularly known as Adam and Eve's (Peter Costello: A Biography).  

swerve - an abrupt change of direction, an erratic deflection from an intended course

bend - curve + swerve of shore ... bend of bay - curving shoreline of Dublin Bay, seen from two different points of view: that of the native on the shore and that of the foreign invader (or returning exile) at sea. 

bay - a body of water partially enclosed by land but with a wide mouth, affording access to the sea

commodious - roomy and comfortable

vicus (l) - village, hamlet; row of houses, quarter of a city + vicious circle - situation in which a cause produces a result that itself produces the original cause + Giambattista Vico.

recirculation - a renewed or fresh circulation

Howth - promontory and peninsula on the northern side of Dublin bay

environs - surroundings, outskirts + FDV (First Draft Version): brings us to Howth Castle & Environs!

Wsir (Osiris) - where the sign "throne", usually used for writing the consonant st, mainly in the word "place", is used for writing the sound ws. The "eye" writes the sound ir. Third sign denotes "god" and is not pronounced.

Tristram - Tristan of Lyonnesse (hero of medieval romance, nephew of Mark of Cornwall, lover of Isolde of Ireland) + Sir Tristrem - metrical romance by Thomas the Rhymer from 13. c. + Sir Amory Tristram, one of Ireland's Norman conquerors, founder of the St Lawrence family of Howth Joyce: "Sir Amory Tristram 1st earl of Howth changed his name to Saint Lawrence, in Brittany (North Armorica)".

violer - a player of the viol, in early use esp. one attached to the household of the king, a noble, etc. + viola d'amore - a sweet-toned tenor viol (Italian, literally 'viol of love') + 'viola in all moods and senses' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

d'amore (it) - of love + d'amores (Portuguese) - of loves + FDV: Sir Tristram, viola d'amores, had not encore arrived passencore rearrived on a merry isthmus from North Armorica to wielder fight his peninsular war, nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time, nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick

A long sea implies an uniform and steady motion of long and extensive waves; on the contrary, a short sea is when they run irregularly, broken, and interrupted, so as frequently to burst over a vessel's side or quarter + Short Sea (Nautical) - Irish Sea.

pas encore (fr) - not yet + passe encore (fr) - Said of something passable or tolerable + cor (l) - heart + 'passencore = pas encore and ricorsi storici of Vico' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

rearrive - to arrive again + FDV: had not encore arrived passencore rearrived

Armorica - name of the north-western part of Gaul, now called Bretagne or Brittany

scraggy - rough, irregular or broken in outline or contour + scrag (Slang) - neck + FDV: on a merry isthmus

isthmus - a narrow portion of land, enclosed on each side by water, and connecting two larger bodies of land; a neck of land + isthmos (gr) - neck + 'Isthmus of Sutton a peck of land between Howth head and the plain' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + happy christmas.

minor - small

wielder - a ruler, governer; one who uses or acts skilfully + wieder (ger) - again + wiel (Dutch) - wheel + 'wielderfight = wiederfechten = refight' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

'Arthur Wellesley (of Dublin) fought in the Peninsular war' & 'Tristan et Iseult, passim' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + In August 1808, British forces landed in Portugal under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington + penis + isolate + FDV: to wielder fight his peninsular war

top sawyer - a worker at a sawpit who stands above the timber; one who holds a superior position, a first-rate hand at something + Topsawyer's Rock - a rock formation on the Oconee river in Georgia, United States + Tom Soyer

rocks (Slang) - testicles + FDV: nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time,

Oconee - river in Georgia + ochone - exclamation of regret or grief.

exaggerate - to heap up

gorgio - designation given by gipsies to one who is not a gipsy (from Gipsy gorgio: a Gentile, a person who is not a Gypsy, one who lives in a house and not in a tent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'gorgios (Gentiles)' Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'gipsies of the true caste complained that the "giorgios" or "Gentiles" persisted in classing all kinds of tramps and beggars of the high road as "gipsies".' + Giorgio Joyce (1905-1976) - James Joyce's son + REFERENCE

Dublin, Georgia - Town, Laurens County, Georgia, US, on Oconee River. Joyce explained to Harriet Weaver that it was founded by a Dubliner named Peter Sawyer (actually it was Jonathan Sawyer), and that its motto was "Doubling all the time."   

mumper - beggar, a begging impositor; halfbred gipsy (slang) + (notebook 1922-23): 'mumper roadfolk who shelter' Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'the Romanichal, the true-bred gipsy, scorns the "mumpers" or road-folk who seek cover at night under house-roof' + numbers.

afire - flaming, on fire + a voice from afar.

bellows - to blow (with bellows) + bellow - to call, yell + 'bellowed = the response of the peatfire of faith to the windy words of the apostle' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

'Mishe = I am (Irish) i.e. Christian' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver)] + mische (ger) - mix + Moshe (Hebrew) - Moses + Exodus 3:2: 'the bush burned with fire... God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.'

mish (Serbian) - mouse + Maurice [mouse] Behan [Typhon] (man servant), slaying a dragon [*S*] ("Over mantelpiece picture of Michael, lance, slaying Satan, dragon with smoke.") + Typhon = Black Dragon [Black Snake], constellation Great Bear; Draco = Red Dragon [Red Snake], constellation Orion.

'Tauf = baptize (German)' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + Butt/Taff (Muladhara/Sahasrara) + Paul + FDV: nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick.

In Greek petros, "Peter", is a masculine form of petra, which means "rock"; Jesus says: "Thou art Peter (petros), and upon this rock (petra) I will build my church → 'Thou art Peter and upon this rock etc (a pun in the original Aramaic)' & 'Lat: Tu es Petrus et super hane petram' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

venison - any beast of chase or other wild animal killed by hunting + very soon.

scad - a dollar + cad + cadet - younger son (as Jacob was) + kidskin (which Jacob used to disguise himself) + FDV: Not yet though venisoon after had a kidson kidscadet buttended an a bland old isaac not yet & all's fair in vanessy, had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan. Not Rot a peck of pa's malt had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.

buttend - to use the butt end (e.g. of a gun) + butt (Colloquial) - buttock + 'Parnell ousted Isaac Butt from leadership' & 'The venison purveyor Jacob got the blessing meant for Esau' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

bland - suave, dull, uninteresting + blind

Isaac - Isaac ben Abraham (known as Isaac the blind) + REFERENCE

Thackery: Vanity Fair + FDV: not yet & all's fair in vanessy,

sosie - double, twin esp. an identical twin + saucy sisters + FDV: had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.

wroth - to manifest anger, to become angry + "And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell." (Genesis 4:6) + Roth, Samuel - piratically published some of "Work in Progress" in Two Worlds (New York, 1925-26), and in 1926-27 published more than half of Ulysses

twenty nine + (two-one) Jonathan Swift, "nathandjoe," and his amours with two girls, Esther Johnson (Stella) and Esther Vanhomrigh (Vanessa) + nat (Dutch) - wet.

rot - to decompose + rota (l) - wheel + FDV: Not Rot a peck of pa's malt  

peck - a liquid measure of two gallons; a considerable quantity or number, a 'quantity'

Jim + Shem + FDV: had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight

Shaun + John + shen (Hebrew) - tooth.

malt - barley or other grain prepared for brewing or distilling


brew - to concoct, to convert (barley, malt, or other substance) into a fermented liquor

arclight = arclamp - a lamp in which the light is produced by an electric arc.

rory - dewy, gaudy in colour + Rory - Joyce glosses the word (Letters, I, 248) thus: "rory = Irish = red"/ "rory = Latin, roridus = dewy"/ "At the rainbow's end are dew and the colour red: bloody end to the lie in Anglo-Irish = no lie." In FW, "rainbow" has the Biblical meaning of peace, covenant between God and man; "dew" is its opposite, a promise of continued war, because Vico says that, after the flood, the climate was dry and it did not thunder till after "dew" appeared (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

regina (l) - a queen + Regen (ger) - rain + Regenbogen (ger) - rainbow + FDV: & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.

ringsum (ger) - all around + 'ringsome = German ringsum, around' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

aqua (l) - water + Genesis 1:2: 'And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters' + (Osiris' body was torn up into fourteen parts).

FDV: The story tale of the fall is retailed early in bed and later in life throughout most christian minstrelsy. The great fall of the wall at once entailed at such short notice the fall of Finnigan, the solid man and that the humpty hill hillhead himself promptly prumptly sends an inquiring unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes.

gaireachtach (garokhtokh) (gael) - boisterous + gargarahat, karak (Hindustani) - thunder.

"Joyce asked me 'Aren't there 4 terrible things in Japan, "Kaminari" being one of them?' I counted for him: 'Jishin (earthquake), kaminari (thunder), kaji (fire), oyaji (paternity).' & he laughed." (Takaoki Katta, "15 juillet, 1926.")

ukkonen (Finnish) - thunder

brontę (gr) - thunder

Donner (ger) = tonnerre (French) - thunder

tuono (Italian) - thunder

thunner (Dialect) - thunder

trovăo (Portuguese) - thunder

Varuna - Hindu creator and storm god 

åska (Swedish) - thunder.

torden (Danish) - thunder

tornach (tornokh) (gael) - thunder

Wallstreet - New York stock exchange (Wall Street Crash of 1929, but this sentence already appears in Transition #1, published in 1927) + strait - difficulty, crisis.

Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635), lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when over a hundred + parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt.

retell - to tell again + re- - 'again, 'anew' + tale - to discourse, talk, gossip.

minstrelsy - the singing and playing of a minstrel + Christy Minstrels - black face troop which came from America to London in 1857. Moore and Burgess were their rivals. 

'Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall' + oeuf (French) - egg + FDV: The great fall of the wall

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

at short notice - with little time for action or preparation

pfui - an exclamation of contempt or disgust + chute (fr) - fall + FDV: at once entailed at such short notice the fall of Finnigan,

Erse - Irish + Erseman - a man who is Erse by birth or descent + else.

solid - acting together as a single undiversified whole; having high moral qualities; entirely of a single color throughout

humpty - humped, hump-backed + Humpty Dumpty - A short, dumpy, hump-shouldered person. In the well-known nursery rime or riddle commonly explained as signifying an egg (in reference to its shape); thence allusively used of persons or things which when once overthrown or shattered cannot be restored. (In the nursery rime or riddle there are numerous variations of the last two lines, e.g. 'Not all the king's horses and all the king's men Could [can] set [put] Humpty Dumpty up again [in his place again, together again]'.)

promptly + "...bed is almost entirely obscure to the formerly solid ("erst solid"), once upright ("once wallstrait") Irishman ("erse... man") who is laid to rest in it ("laid to rust") and who, no longer either solid or upright, seems to have sustained very serious fall ("The Fall," "the great fall," "the pftjschute [Fr. chute, "fall"]). Perhaps only a minute ago our rubbled hero could have identified his head and feet with as much proud precision as any wakeful rationalist, and in several languages too. Now he hasn't vaguest awareness of their location, of their relation either to each other or to himself, or quite fully of their existence; the paragraph resolves as a muddily blurred "humptyhihllhead" sends sensory inquiries outward in space in quest of the toes to which it is presumably attached." (John Bishop: Joyce's Book of the Dark).

inquiring - that inquires, inquisitive + FDV: the solid man and that the humpty hill hillhead himself promptly prumptly sends an inquiring unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes.

quest - search + Dr. Heinrich Schliemann: 'I found in the Museum at St. Petersburg one of the oldest papyrus rolls in existence. It was written in the reign of Pharaoh Sent [Pharaoh Sendji (Sened) name appears in the Abydos kings list, the Saqqara Kings List, the Turin list], of the Second Dynasty, or 4,571 years B. C. It contains a description of how the Pharaoh sent out an expedition 'to the West' in search of traces of the 'Land of Atlantis,' whence '3,350 years ago the ancestors of the Egyptians arrived carrying with themselves all the wisdoms of their native lands.' The expedition returned after five years with the report that they had found neither people nor objects which could give them a clue as to the vanished land.'

Khenti-Amentiu means 'Foremost of the Westerners' or 'Chief or the Westerners', where 'Westerners' refers to the dead. As early as the Old Kingdom, Khenti-Amentiu is associated with Wesir (Osiris).

turnpike - a barrier placed across a road to stop passage till the toll is paid + turn up one's toes - to die + pike - medieval weapon consisting of a spearhead attached to a long pole or pikestaff + TURNPIKE - The Dublin turnpike system was introduced in the reign of George II. An 1821 map shows 10 Dublin turnpikes, almost all located on the North Circular Road and South Cicrcular Road at the crossing of main roads. The turnpike in Chapelizod was just East of the Phoenix Tavern (where the Mullingar House now stands) at the curve of the Dublin road to the bridge. It is described on the 1st page of Le Fanu's House by the Churchyard. The Dublin-Mullingar road was a turnpike road until 1853. 

palac (Serbian) - toe + FDV: Two facts have come down to us Their resting The upturnpikepoint for place is at the knock out in the park where there have always been oranges on laid on the green always & ever ever & evermore since the Devlin Devlins first loved liffey livy.

cnoc (knuk) (gael) - hill + Castleknock, in a cemetery west of Phoenix Park + knock out - a knock-out blow.

orange (Slang) - vulva + "that fatal midden or chip factory or comicalbottomed copsjute (dump for short) afterwards changed into the orangery when in the course of deeper demolition unexpectedly one bushman's holiday its limon threw up a few spontaneous fragments of orangepeel," [110.25-29]

rust - decompose + lay to rest - to put in the last resting-place, to bury + rust (Dutch) - rest.