livery - a servant's uniform; the lodging provided for a person, the quarters of a portion of an army + Coyne and Livery - food and entertainment for soldiers, and forage for their horses, exacted by an army from the people whose lands they passed through, or from towns where they rested on their march + Liberties - district of Dublin.

monomark - combination of letters as an identification mark + monomachus (l) - fighter in single combat, gladiator + monomachos (Greek) - gladiator.

misser - a mass priest + missies (Colloquial) - girls.

moony - stupidly dreamy; rel. to moon; many + MOONEY'S - Mooney and Co has operated a chain of pubs in central Dublin since the 19th century + Mooney, Mrs - landlady in the Dubliners story, "The Boarding House," whose daughter waits upstairs while argument rages + mouni (gr) - vulva.

minikin - tiny + manikin - a model of the human body used for exhibiting the anatomical structure or for demonstrating surgical operations + Mannequin Pisse - a famous statue of a small boy taking a leak, often seen as a symbol of Brussels.

passe - no longer young, faded, no longer fashionable + passe (fr) - a fuck + pass

taciturn - silent + Tacitus, Cornelius (55-120) - Roman historian.

pre-tells + FDV: Simply Sumply because, as Taciturn pretells, the our wrongstory shortener, he dumptied the this wholebarrow of rubbages on to soil here?

make a long story short - to relate in few words

dumpty - short and stout + dump - to throw down in a lump or mass, as in tilting anything out of a cart + Humpty Dumpty + emptied wheelbarrow.

rubbage = rubbish

puddingstone - a conglomerate rock consisting of naturally-cemented pebbles; conglomerate + (notebook 1924): 'poudingue pudding stone' → Boulenger & Thérive: Les Soirées du Grammaire-Club 263: 'We need a more subtle working of the mind to separate and classify the elements of this pudding-stone' (glossed in a footnote: 'This is not an arbitrary frenchisation, but a word of geology').

inat (Serbian) - spite, malice + FDV: Just like a puddingstone at inat the brookcells of a riverpool.

brook - rivulet + Bruck- (dial. ger) - bridge + BRUSSELS - City, and capital of Belgium, on Senne River; Fr Bruxelles. The Willibroek Canal makes Brussels a seaport + cell - a small apartment, room, or dwelling.

all marshy + Lord-a-mercy - An interjection expressing astonishment + FDV: Lord Loud Load a marshy marshey!

wid - colloq. and dial. pronunc. of with

wad (Cornish) - forefather + with what - at which time, when + FDV: With what Wid wad for a noise like?

similar + FDV: Somular to a bull in a Clompturf. (Joyce intended to make an addition here. In the next draft we find "Rooks roarum rex Roome!").

BULLS, NORTH AND SOUTH - The "Bulls" were the great sandbanks North and South of the channel in inner Dublin Bay, so-called "from the roaring of the surf against them when uncovered at low water" (Haliday, 234). Since the building of the South and Bull Walls, the South Bull is under water at all tides and the North Bull is an island, connected with the mainland by a bridge (no longer wooden as in A Portrait), and paralleling the shore from Clontarf almost to Howth. Clontarf, "meadow of the bull," may have been named from the North Bull.

clomp - to tread clumsily and noisily, a thud + Clontarf

res, rei, rei, rem (l) - a thing, of a thing, to a thing, thing + rex, regis, regi, regem (l) - king, of a king, to a king, king + ros, roris, rori, rorem (l) - dew, of dew, do dew, dew + rex rorum, rex Romae (l) - The King of the dews is the King of Rome + rex rerum (l) - king of wealth + rex Romae (l) - king of Rome.

snore - to make harsh or noisy sounds in sleep, to declare + schnore (swiss) - talk, chatter + swore + FDV: I could snore to him [woolseley side in], with my owth by the neck I am sutton on old Brian O'Flynn O'Flinn.

spumy - covered with spume (foam, froth)

woolsey = linsey-woolsey - textile of wool and linen + Arthur Wellesley - first Duke of Wellington.

neck - a narrow stretch of land (isthmus, cape, mountain pass), a brick wall

SUTTON - The narrow isthmus joining Howth to the mainland (Greek isthmos: neck) + sitting

Brian O'Linn (song): 'Brian O'Linn had no breeches to wear / So he got him a sheepskin to make him a pair / The leather side out and the wooly side in / "Sure it's great summers clothing." said Brian O'Linn' + Black Linn - the highest point on Howth.

boiled oil + BALDOYLE - Village, North of Sutton and Howth; site of race course.

raw - uncooked, not prepared for use as food by the action of fire or heat + Raheny - N.E. Dublin suburb + raw honey

barely + beurre (fr) - butter + beurla (Irish) - English language.

forstand - understand + FDV: Boiledoil Boiledoyl & rawhony for on me if I can forestand you your such a norse noise noise norse as you make out of it.

sturk - a young bullock or heifer; a foolish person + Sturk - occupant of LeFanu's House by the Churchyard, he is attacked in Butcherswood in the Phoenix Park. Sturk is "resurrected" by Black Dillon + start & Turk.

Finnic - Finnish, the finnic languages + finish

Rotterdam + rotter - slang. In vaguely depreciative use: One who is objectionable on moral or other grounds + Gotterdammerung (ger) - twilight of the gods + FDV: [You tell of rutterdamrott unheardof & unscene.]

unheard - not heard, new, strange + on- (Dutch prefix) - un-

obscene + unseen + umsehen (ger) - to look around.

gut (ger) - good + good afternoon - salutation used at meeting or parting + FDV: Good aftermeal! [See you doomed.]

doom - to pronounce judgement or sentence against; esp. to condemn to some fate + to see (someone) hanged or damned first - to refuse absolutely to do what one has been asked + see you soon.

agree + a dream.

sec - second + (but wait a second).

dun - dark, dusky + blink - glance + take a walk - to take a short journey on foot (for exercise or pleasure) + Dunsink Observatory, Dublin.

roundward - in a circular direction + FDV: Rest a while. Half Walk a look onward roundward you will see [how old the plain] From in the Bigning Bygning to Finnisthere. Punct.

all but - very nearly + all but isle, i.e. peninsula (from Latin pæne: almost, and Latin insula: island).


olde - old

ye - the, you

Elders - two ancient judges in the apocryphal book of Susanna. They first proposition the young matron and, when repulsed, accuse her of unchastity with a young man. Daniel unmaskes the Elders' lies + Eltern (ger) - parents + Magh nEalta (Irish) - Plain of Flocks. Variously rendered into English as Moynalty, Moynelta, Moyelta etc; the plain north of the Dublin Mountains, where the legendary Irish colonizer Parthalón settled until he and his people were wiped out by a plague.


wone = won - dwell, abide; one; past of win + one.

whimbrel - a small curlew

peewee - dwarf, a lapwig; the thin wailing cry of this bird

salting - land flooded regularly by tides, the place where a stream joins the sea + Joyce's note: 'Saltings'.

will be + by (Danish) - town.

Isthmus of Sutton, joining Howth and the mainland

droit - right, law, justice

signory - lordship, a power of feudal lord + droit de seigneur - the supposed right of a feudal overlord to deflower the bride of any of his tenants on the first night of her marriage.

icefloe - a large sheet of floating ice

beginning + bygning (Danish) - building + Genesis 1:1, John 1:1: 'In the beginning'.

Finistére - French department where, some say, Tristan died + Finisterre (l) - an indication on ancient maps for the end of the known world (from Latin finis terræ: end of the earth) + Cape Finisterre - northwestern tip of Spain (wherefrom Celts supposedly came to Ireland).

punct - point + punctum (l) - punctation mark; period; point + Punkt (ger) - period, full stop + Phoenix Park - large park northwest of Dublin; name probably derives from Irish fionn-uisge: spring of limpid water (Pronunciation 'fin-uiske'), corrupted into Phoenix + finishing point.

Let Erin Remember the Days of Old (song) - a lyric by Thomas Moore (sung to the tune of 'The Red Fox')

mear - to mark out (land) by means of meres (landmarks) or boundaries + (notebook 1924): 'limit of 2 races child's grave' → Chateaubriand: Œuvres Choisies Illustrées I.41, Atala: 'We passed close to the tomb of a child, that served as a boundary for two nations'.

race - a strong current in the sea or a river

swete = sweet + white + sweet and brackish - the fresh water of the River Liffey and the salt water of Dublin Bay, which merge in the river's estuary.

brack - somewhat salt, briny + black

morthering - to become foul, fetid, etc. + morther - murther; mother; a young girl + Moddereen Rue or 'The Red Fox': Thomas Moore's Let Erin Remember the Days of Old is sung to this traditional air + maidrín rua (Irish) - fox (literally: “little red dog”).

rue - sorrow, distress; pity, compassion; a perennial evergreen shrub of the genus Ruta, esp. Ruta graveolens, having bitter, strong-scented leaves which were formerly much used for medicinal purposes.

Krach (ger) - crash + cracher (fr) - to spit.

eastward + estuary.

surgent - rising or swelling in waves + insurgence - uprising, an act of rising up physically.

ebb - the reflux of the tide; the return of tide-water towards the sea

requiesce - to rest, repose + (notebook 1924): 'here flux unites *T* & *L* reflux divides' → Schuré: Les Grandes Légendes de France 215: (of the tides of the Baie de Tréspassés) 'A touching folk legend has it that here meet the souls of those who had killed themselves for love and had been lost in death. Once a year, they are allowed to see each other. The flux unites them, the reflux separates them, and they tear away from each other amid prolonged lamentations').

nether - situated down or below + niederfallen (ger) - to fall down + FDV: Thousand & one livestories have netherfallen here.

plage - the beach; plague

flick - a light blow

snow flakes

litter - odds and ends, fragments and leavings lying about, rubbish

waast = waste + waas (Dutch) - haze, blur + vast

wizzard = wizard + blizzard.

all of (P) - completely, quite (used to emphasize)

whirl - the act of rotating rapidly + whirlwind - a whirling or rotating wind + Heimskringla (Old Norse) - Snorri Sturluson's sagas of the Norse kings; the name means "world’s whirl".

tomb - to lay in the grave, bury, entomb

mound - a tumulus; esp. the earth heaped up upon a grave

ashes to ashes + isge (Old English) - ice + gēs (Greek) - Earth + ice ages (icefloe seven lines above).

erde - do dwell, live, to inhabit + Erde (ger) = erde (Old English) - earth + FDV: They are tombed to the mound isfes to ishges to ishges, erde from erde.

stench - a foul, disgusting, or noisome smell, a disagreeable or offensive odour, a stink

fiat (l) - let there be; let it be, so be it + fuit (l) - it was.

herein - in this place

lye = lie

estrange - a stranger, foreigner + l'étrange (French) - the strange + l'étranger (French) - the foreigner.

Babylon + Arnold Bennett wrote 'The Grand Babylon Hotel', 1902 + Revelation 17:5: 'BABYLON THE GREAT'.

hotel - to lodge at an hotel + title of Finnegans Wake may have started out as 'Finn's Hotel'.

tit - dear, loved; a girl or young woman (often qualified as little); titmouse.

tittle - the smallest or a very small part of something + titmouse - a bird of the genus Parus, comprising small active birds; a small, petty, or insignificant person or thing + 'Tit-tit-tittlemouse Lived in a little house' (nursery rhyme).

alp - a bullfinch (bird); a high rugged mountain, a mountain pasture

earwig - an insect, Forficula auricularia, so called from the notion that it penetrates into the head through the ear

drukne (Danish) - to drown + drunk (on ale).

ild - pple. of ill + ild (Norwegian) - fire.

like as - as, in the way or manner that

ist Liebes (ger) - is love's + Liebes (ger) - love + Wagner: Tristan und Isolde: Liebestod ('love-death' aria).

luv - love