muskrose - (so called from its musky odour) a rambling rose (Rosa moschata), having large fragrant white flowers, in panicled clusters + dog rose - prickly wild rose with delicate pink or white scentless flowers (native to Europe) + FDV: the dogrose duskrose has chosen choosed out Goatstown crossroads

RUSH - Village and seaside resort, County Dublin, 18 miles North of Dublin + sweetrush - a marsh herb with long leaves + FDV: the tulipair tulips twolips amass themselves at Rush twolips have pressed togatherthem by sweet Rush

townland - in Ireland, A division of land of varying extent; also, a territorial division, a township.

twined - Of a plant: Grow so as to spiral around a support + FDV: the place for townland of twilights twinlights

witethorn - a hawthorn

figure - to adorn or mark with figures, to embellish or ornament with a design or pattern

Moyvalley (Irish) - town, County Kildare, on the Liffey river (from Irish Magh Bhealaigh: Plain of the Path) + FDV: and the whitethorn and redthorn have fairygayed the valleys mayvalleys of Knockmaroon

maroon - a large kind of sweet chestnut native to Southern Europe + Knockmaroon Hill, just west of Phoenix Park (also, a western gate of the park) → "knock out in the park" + Cnoc na Mabhan (Gael) - 'hill of the dead persons' + REFERENCE

chiliad - 1000 years + FDV: and though, for rings round them during a hundred thousand yeargangs,

perihelion - that point in the orbit of a planet at which it is nearest to the sun + perihelios (gr) - around-the-sun.

Fomhor (fower) (gael) - legendary pirates harassing pre-Milesian colonists; anglic. Fomorians. Three hundred years after the Flood, Partholón, who, like the Gaels, is a descendant of Noah's son Japheth, settles in Ireland with his three sons and their people. After ten years of peace war breaks out with the Fomorians, a race of evil seafarers led by Cichol Gricenchos. The Partholonians are victorious, but their victory is short-lived. In a single week they are wiped out by a plague — five thousand men and four thousand women — and are buried on the Plain of Elta to the southwest of Dublin, in an area that is still called Tallaght, which means "plague grave". A single man survives the plague, Tuan mac Cairill, who (like Fintán mac Bóchra) survives for centuries and undergoes a succession of metamorphoses, so that he can act as a witness of later Irish history.

brittle - to cut to pieces

teeth oath + tuath (tue) (gael) - region, territory; folk + Tuatha De Danann (tue de donun) (gael) - Folk of the Goddess Dana, descended from Nemed, leader of a previous wave of inhabitants of Ireland. They came from four northern cities, Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias, where they acquired their occult skills and attributes. They arrived in Ireland, on or about May 1 (the date of the festival of Bealtaine), on dark clouds, although later versions rationalise this by saying they burned their ships to prevent retreat, and the "clouds" were the smoke produced. Led by their king, Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuiredh (Moytura), on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland. In the battle, Nuada lost an arm to their champion, Sreng. Since Nuada was no longer "unblemished", he could not continue as king and was replaced by the half-Fomorian Bres, who turned out to be a tyrant. The Fomorians were mythological enemies of the people of Ireland, often equated with the mythological "opposing force" such as the Greek Titans to the Olympians, and during Bres's reign they imposed great tribute on the Tuatha Dé, who became disgruntled with their new king's oppressive rule and lack of hospitality. By this time Nuada had his lost arm replaced by a working silver one by the physician Dian Cecht and the wright Creidhne (and later with a new arm of flesh and blood by Dian Cecht's son Miach). Bres was removed from the kingship, having ruled for seven years, and Nuada was restored. He ruled for twenty more years.

oxman - a man who tends or drives oxen + 'Oxman' - Viking (as in Oxmantown, part of North Dublin).

firebug - arsonist, the fire-fly + Fir Bolga (fir bulgu) (gael) - Bags Men, third legendary colonists of Ireland. In far antiquity the Fir Bolg were the rulers of Ireland (at the time called Ériu) immediately before the arrival of the Tuatha Dé Danann, or the Children of Danu, who many interpret as the Gaelic gods. The King of the Tuatha Dé Danann, Nuada, sued for half the island for his people, but the Fir Bolg king refused. They met at the Pass of Balgatan, and the ensuing battle - the Battle of Mag Tuired - went on for four days. During the battle Sreng, the champion of the Fir Bolg, challenged Nuada to single combat. With one sweep of his sword, Sreng cut off Nuada's right hand. However, the Fir Bolg were defeated and their king, Eochaidh, was slain by a goddess, The Morrígan, though the fierce efforts of their champion Sreng saved them from utter loss. The Tuatha Dé Danann were so touched by their nobility and spirit they gave them one quarter of the island as their own. They chose Connacht and are mentioned very little after this in the myths.

throw up - to erect or construct hastily; to cease definitely to do, quit, give up + FDV: Joynts have given thrown up wallmaking

jerrybuild - to build flimsily of materials of poor quality + Jerry/Kevin → Jerry, short for Jeremiah, is a cognate of Irish Diarmaid; Kevin is a cognate of Greek Eugenios.

Little Green Market, Dublin

William Wordsworth: My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold: 'The Child is father to the Man'.


pax (l) - peace + peace pact sealed.

button hole - the hole or slit through which a button passes, an opening like a buttonhole; a flower or small bunch of flowers worn pinned to the lapel or in the buttonhole, esp at weddings, formal dances, etc.

quadrille - to dance quadrilles (a square dance, of French origin, usually performed by four couples, and containing five sections or figures, each of which is a complete dance in itself).

whiff - a slight puff or gust of wind, a breath

waft - to blow softly, to send through the air

Killaloe (notebook 1924) → Cill Dha Lua (kilgalu) (gael) - Church of [St.] Dalua, Co. Clare, site of Brian Boru's palace; anglic. Killaloe + FDV: as on the day of combat Killallwhoo.

Babel - the city and tower, of which the attempted construction is described in Genesis xi, where the confusion of languages is said to have taken place; a confused assemblage + FDV: The babbling babblers of with their tongues have been & have gone, they were & went,

teanga (Irish) - tongue, language + tanga (Portuguese) - a type of very brief bikini, the thong or g-string; a former coin of Portuguese India, equal to the 10th part of a rupee.

thigging - begging + tuigeann tú (Irish) - you understand + thinking.

thug - gangster

Houyhnhnm - The name given by Swift in Gulliver's Travels to one of a race of beings described as horses endowed with reason and bearing rule over a degraded brutish race of men, called the Yahoos.

Sodom - an extremely wicked or corrupt place. Freq. coupled with Gomorrah, the name of the other of the two wicked cities of the plain in Gen. xviii-xix + hymn, song.

comely - having a pleasing appearence

norgeln (ger) - to grumble, complain + Norge (Norwegian) - Norway.

playful fiancees + Parlez-vous Français? (French) - do you speak French? + FDV: thigging thugs were and houhynam songtoms were & gumly comely norgers norgels were & pollyfool francees fiancees;

thaw - to abandon aloofness, reserve or hostility, to become softened in feelings

Sursum corda - (Latin sursum upwards, corda, pl. of cor hear) in Latin Eucharistic liturgies, the words addressed by the celebrant to the congregation at the beginning of the Eucharistic Prayer; in English rites, the corresponding versicle, 'Lift up your hearts' + susurro (l) - to hum, buzz, murmur + sussurrare (Italian) - to whisper.

brune - dark, brown, black + The blond invaders (comely norgels or Norse) desire the brunette women of Ireland + FDV: men have thawed, clerks have surssurummed surssurhummed, the blond has sought of the brune:

elsker du mig, min kaere pige? (Danish) - do you love me, my dear?

piggy - a little pig, having attributes of pig + FDV: Else kiss thou may mean [kerry] piggy?:

dunkel (ger) - dark + FDV: and the duncle duncledames have countered to the hellish fellows:

counter - to meet; to encounter or engage in combat

hellish - infernal, diabolical, devilish + hail fellow - an intimate or familiar associate, the state or footing of intimate friends.

est ton cadeau, espèce d’imbecile? (French) - where is your gift, you imbecile? + FDV: Who ails tongue coddo, aspace dumbbeksally dumbbillselly?

fall upon - to rush upon, assault + FDV: & they fell upon one another & themselves they fell have fallen:

nowanights - on present nights

flora - the plants; in Latin mythology, the goddess of flowers whose festival, the Floralia on 28 April, was an occasion for unbridled sexual licence + Matthew 6:28: 'lilies of the field'.

faun - one of a class of rural deities; at first represented like men with horns and the tail of a goat, afterwards with goats' legs like the Satyrs, to whom they were assimilated in lustful character + fauna - a collective term applied to the animals.

cull - to gather, pluck + call + FDV: yet still [nowanights as all in nights of yore] do all the bold Floras floras of the field to their fauns shyfaun lovers say only: Cull me I am ere I wilt to thee, and but a little later: Pluck me ere whilst I blush.

wilt - Of plants or their parts: To become limp or flaccid, through heat or drought.

whilst - while

marry - an exclamation of asseveration, surprise, etc.

in troth - truly, verily, indeed

howitz - cannon + old as the hills - very old + FDV: Well, may they wilt, marry! And profusedly blush, be troth! For that saying is as old as the howths, wherever you have lay a whale in a whillbarrow (isn't it the truath I'm tallen ye?) you'll have fins & flippers to shimmy & shake. / Excuse us, Lictor. Can you direct one to the (Sic. Joyce ended his primitive draft here. Revision preceded the writing of the pseudohistoric dialogue between Mutt and Jute and perhaps also the Annals passage cited above.)

lave - leave + laver (fr) - to wash.

a while - for a (short or moderate) time

wheel barrow - a barrow or shallow open box mounted between two shafts that receive the axle of a wheel at the front ends, the rear ends being shaped into handles and having legs on which it rests.

tallin (Ulster Pronunciation) - telling

flipper - the fin of a fish + (notebook 1923): 'flippers (whale)'.

shimmy - to oscilate abnormally + Finnegan's Wake (song), chorus: 'Whack fol the dah, dance to your partner, Welt the flure, yer trotters shake, Wasn't it the truth I told you Lots of fun at Finnegan's Wake' (originally, Poole: Tim Finigan's Wake: 'Whack, hurrah! blood and 'ounds, ye sowl ye! Welt the flure, yer trotters shake; Isn't it the truth I've tould ye Lots of fun at Finigan's wake!')

in the name of - exp. of surprise

ainm (Irish) - name + Adam.

carl - a man of the common people, countryman, a base fellow

kopje - a small hill (in south Africa) + Joyce's note: 'hophare bacontree kopje' → Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 156 (sec. 154): 'the Dutch... in South Africa... applied... kopje 'a little head or cup' to the hills' (from Afrikaans to English).

pelt - to strip or pluck off (the pelt or skin) from, to skin, fleece

thong - a narrow strip of hide or leather, for use as a lace, cord, band, strap, or the like

Parthalon (parhalon) (gael) - leader of second legendary colonists

Biggar, Joseph - trusted parliamentary aide of Parnell's, a "character" of whom many stories were told. Biggar was hunchbacked and misshapen + Joe (*S*) + bugger + Jupiter.

forshapen - transformed, misshapen + forshape - to metamorphose, transform.

pygmy - very small, diminutive, tiny + pig, hog.

hogshead - a large cask or barrel; Applied to a person with allusion to the animal + forehead.


plod - a heavy tiring walk + Plattfuss (ger) - flat foot.

hath - have

lakat (Serbian) - elbow.

shin - the front part of the human leg between the knee and the ankle

pectoral - something worn on the breast

pectoral muscles - the muscles of the chest + mamma - mother.

mousterian - rel. to late Paleolith period (70.000 - 30.000 B.C.)

slake - to lick with the tongue

nuncheon = luncheon - a slight repast taken between two of the ordinary meal-times.

brain pan - the skull

almost + all month.

clear + keep - care, attention, heed, notice; usually in phrases to take, give keep, to take or give heed, take notice + on the qui vive - on the look-out.

fief - a feudal estate + view

comestible - eatable, edible + stipple - to paint, engrave, or otherwise design in dots + constable.

Saxon - a member of a Germanic people who conquered England and merged with the Angles and Jutes to become Anglo-Saxons + Sackerson - Elizabethan bear + (*S*).

junipery - abounding in junipers (gin contains juniper) + January

ramping - violent, unrestrained

pluviôse (fr) - fifth (mid-winter, January 20 to February 18/19) month of French Revolutionary calendar (French pluvieux: rainy) + (pouring rain or drinks).