punned - p. of pun (to beat, to pound, to make puns) + pound

Peter's penny - an annual tax or tribute of a penny from each householder having land of a certain value, paid before the Reformation to the papal see at Rome

fake - an act of 'faking'; a contrivance, 'dodge', trick, invention + feach! (Irish) - look! + (Finnegans) Wake.


outwash - material carried out from the glacier by melt water + wash out - to obliterate.

engravure - an egraving + FDV: How charmingly exquisite! It reminds you of the fading engraving engravure that used to be blurring on the blotchwall of his innkempt house. Used they? (I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchel,]] was listening.) I say, the remains of the famous gravemures where used to be blurried the Tollmens of the Incabus. Used he we? (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly) It is well known. Look for himself. See? By the mausoleme mausolime wall. Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum!

blur - to make blurs in writing; to obscure or sully (what has been fair) by smearing with ink or other colouring liquid

blotch - a large irregular spot or blot of ink, colour, etc. + back wall.

unkempt = illkempt - neglected, not cared for + innkeeper.

chapel+ shoveller - one who walks lazily; one who intrudes + FDV: I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchell,]] was listening.

mujik - a Russian peasant + music box - a mechanical musical instrument consisting of a revolving toothed cylinder working upon a resonant comb-like metal plate, a barrlel organ + magic box - applied colloq. to various, esp. electronic, devices + magical = magic.

miry - resembling a mire, stained with mire + Mary Matchwell/Mary Duncan, a professional con artist and schemer who infiltrates the Nutter household by offering to tell Mrs Nutter's fortune. Mrs Matchwell accuses Nutter of bigamy, having married her long ago; he sets off to attempt to prove that she herself was already married at the time and that her husband is still living. Unfortunately, he ends up in the Park just at the time of Sturk's meeting with Dangerfield, and when he hears the sounds of the attack he runs to the scene; his footprints are thus later found at the scene of the crime and he becomes a suspect. Nutter disappears (after anonymously reporting the crime) and for a long time is assumed to have committed suicide, especially after a body is pulled from the river; but he is eventually discovered and put in jail, pending trial for the attack on Sturk. (Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: The House by the Churchyard)

outworn - obliterated by the action of time

mure - a wall; mire (a mass of dirt); moor (uncultivated ground covered with heather)


dolmen - a prehistoric megalith typically having two upright stones and a capstone + Ptolemy - 2d-century Alexandrian mathematician, astronomer, geographer. In Geographike syntaxis, he gives an inaccurate description of Ireland, calls Dublin "Eblana," and Howth an island + ptôma (gr) - corpse.

incubus - a feigned evil spirit or demon (originating in personified representations of the nightmare) supposed to descend upon persons in their sleep, and especially to seek carnal intercourse with women.

pretendent - pretender, claimant, one who lays a claim at something, one who simulates

stug - to stab, pierce + FDV: (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly)

Jubal and Tubal Cain - Jubal was "father of all such as handle the harp and organ"; Tubal was "instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Genesis, 4.) Their brother Jabal was father of those who live in tents and have cattle + jubilee - a special anniversary.

fiery - burning, blazing, red, full of spirit, emotion, etc. + Feardorcha O'Farrelly - 18th century Irish poet.

lokk - to lock + FDV: It is well known. Look for himself. See?

butte - an isolated hill with steep sides

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus + By the Magazine Wall, zinzin, zinzin (motif) + FDV: By the mausoleme mausolime wall.

funfair - a fair which is devoted to amusements + The Letter: grand funeral/fun-for-all + FDV: Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum!

fumfum - expressing the sound of a stringed instrument; a thumping or beating

optophone - an instrument by which light variations are converted into sound variations so that blind person is enabled to locate and estimate varying degrees of light

onto- (gr) - being, reality + phaino (gr) - show.

list - listen

Wheatstone - English scientist (invented a box shaped like a lyre, into which a piano's vibrations were passed, and which then appeared to play itself)

lyer - liar + magic eye - a miniature cathode-ray tube used as a tuning indicator on a radio receiver, or to indicate the correct adjustment of other electrical equipment.

tuggle - to struggle, labour, to drag about

foriver (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - forever + struggling for Ivor.

lichen - to cover with or as if with lichens + listening for Olaf.

forover (Danish) - forwards + FDV: They will be tuggling forever. They will be listling forever. They will be pretumbling forever.

discord - disagreement or want of harmony between two or more musical notes sounded together; dissonance + FDV: The Their harpsichord harpsdischord will be theirs forever.

ollave - a learned man in ancient Ireland + always

Herodotus - Greek historian of the fifth century b.c. + hereditary + FDV: And four Four things therefore these four, saith Mamalu Mamalujius in his Grand Old Historiorum writ by Boriorum, sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide. [And here now they are the four of them four Erins.]

mammon - wealth, money + Titus Livius - Roman historian, traditionally known as Livy + Mark, Mathew, Luke, John.

Annals of the Four Masters were written in Donegal, which was called Boreum by Ptolemy.

best + blue - depressing, unpromising, boring.

baile - dance, a social gathering for dancing + baile (Irish) - town (as in Irish 'Baile Atha Cliath': Dublin).

annals - historical records generally + Annals of the Four Masters.

f.t. (Norwegian) = 'for tiden' - at present + four things (abbreviation by initialising was common in medieval Irish chronicles).

Dyfflinarsky - territory around Norse Dublin

sall - shall

til - till + heather - native species of the genus Erica (bot.)

Eire - Ireland isle

ile - isle

pall - to cover with a pall (burial garment in which a corpse is wrapped); something, such as a cloud, that extends over a thing or region and produces an effect of gloom + FDV: sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide.

adar - the 6th month of civil and 12th month of ecclestiastical year in Jewish calendar + Adar = Eadair (Irish) - Howth.

toties (l) - so many times, as many times + teetotum - four-sided disk with letter on each side. In game of chance spun to see which side finished uppermost (originally written as 'T. totum').

unum (l) - one

boss - spec. A hump or hunch on the back (obs.) + FDV: A swellhead swelledhead bulbenhead on surmounting surmounted an alderman. Ay, ay! A shoe on a poor old woman. Ah, ho! An auburn maid, a bridabride, to be deserted. Adear, adear! A pen no weightier than a polepost. And so. And all.

surmount - to stand or be placed on top of

alderman - a noble or person of high rank

duum (l) - of two

nizam (arab) - order + nisan - 7th month of c. year and 1. of ecc. year (jew.)

puir - poor + Poor Old Woman or Shan Van Vocht - Ireland (poetically).

trium (l) - of three

tamuz - 10th and 4th month + Tammuz - Babybonian slain god, called Adonis by Phoenicians. Tammuz is the 6th month in the Babylonian calendar. The Annals, 13-14, are zodiacal (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

auburn - of a golden-brown or ruddy-brown colour


brine - the water of the sea; the sea + O'Brien.

desart = desert - to abandon, forsake

quodlibet (l) - as many as one pleases, what you please + quodlibet - 1) a philosophical argument or debate, especially as an exercise; 2) a humorous medley of tunes.

marcheshvan - 2th and 8th month of the Jewish year

penn - pen (obs.) + Bulwer-Lytton: 'The pen is mightier than the sword'.

succoth = sukkoth - Jewish Harvest Festival, sometimes called the Jewish Thanksgiving, or the Feast of Tabernacles. It begins on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Tishri (roughly late September), on the fifth day after Yom Kippur. The celebration lasts for 7 days, during which the Jews commemorate the wandering in the wilderness + (notebook 1923): 'Succoth (Patrick)' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 10: 'King Niall of the Nine Hostages went on successive expeditions against the peoples of Gaul and Britain. Amongst the captives... was Succoth, a lad of sixteen... afterwards called Patricius, probably in allusion to his noble birth'.

idler - one who is idle

wind turns over pages (notebook 1924) → Schuré: Les Grandes Légendes de France 162: 'a hurricane passed over the book and turned all the pages. It remained open on the XIIth chapter of the Apocalypse'.

innocent + innocens (l) - harmless + Innocent - thirteen popes, one antipope; Innocent II, who opposed Anacletus, the antipope, in 1132.

"The Heathen Priests and Philosophers hailed him [Julian the Apostate] the divine Anaclete (the Recalled), the re-ascending Apollo."

popeye - a staring bulging eye + Popeye - of "Thimble Theatre", American comic strip.

antipope - one claiming to be pope in opposition to the pope chosen

boke - vomit, belch + Book of the Dead.

timed his cycle (notebook 1924)

fossil - fosil

emmet - A synonym of ant (chiefly dial., but often used poet. or arch.) + FDV: The Annals tell bring how 1132 AC AB Men like gnats to ants wondern all over on a groot Wide Wallfisch that lay in a Runnel.

wandern (ger) - wander

groot - mud, soil, earth + groot (Dutch) - great, large.

hwide - hide + hvid (Danish) - white + white

whalefish - a whale + whall - wall + fisk (Danish) - fish + Walfisch (ger) - whale + Annals of Dublin record: 'A great famine relieved by a prodigious shoal of fish, called Turlehydes, being cast on shore at the mouth of the Dodder. They were from 30 to 40 feet long, and so thick that men standing on each side of one of them, could not see those on the other. Upwards of 200 of them were killed by the people'.

runnel - a small watercourse or channel; a small stream of water, rivulet

bloody + blub - swollen, puffed + FDV: Bloaty Blubber Blubby wares in upat Eblanium.

ware - seaweed; esp. large drift seaweed used as manure; A collective term for: Articles of merchandise or manufacture; vessels, etc., made of baked clay.

Eblana - the Latin name appears on Ptolemy's map of Ireland around the North part of what appears to be Dublin Bay. There is no evidence that it refers to an ancient settlement on the site of Dublin, but it has been so often cited as the Latin name of Dublin + Dublinium (Latin) - Dublin.

Baal - The chief male deity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish nations + Beltane (Irish) - ancient Celtic May Day celebration, on which large bonfires were lit on the hills of Ireland (Irish Bealtaine, popularly etymologised in old Irish texts as 'Baal's fire') + baal (Danish) - bonfire + FDV: 566 A.C. B.A. On Bell Baalfirenacht Ballfireeve of this year a crone that hadde a wickered kish for to hale dead turves from the bog lookit under the blay of her kish as she ran & found herself full rich sackvulle of swalle swart goody shoon quickenshoon & smalle illigant brogues.

crone - a withered old woman